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            Parnas implicates both Barr and Pence in the Trump administration’s plan to coerce Ukraine into announcing an investigation into Joe Biden

            I’ll keep this brief, and just get right to the point. This evening, Trump administration bag man Lev Parnes told Rachel Maddow not only that Donald Trump and Rudy Giuliani were directing his activities in the Ukraine, but that both Vice President Mike Pence and Attorney General Bill Barr were aware of their plan to coerce the Ukrainian government to announce an investigation into Joe Biden. Here’s a bit of the video.

            Among other things, Parnes said that, “It was never about corruption,” and that “President Trump knew exactly what was going on.” And, as I eluded to above, he also made it clear that everyone in the administration was aware of what was happening. “Attorney General Barr was basically on the team,” he told Maddow. And it would appear that Pence was in the know as well, cancelling his trip to Ukraine for Zelensky’s inauguration when, at first, they resisted resisted playing along, and making the public announcement about Biden being investigated for corruption.

            Oh, it’s also worth pointing out that Giuliani’s opinion about his old associate has changed. When Parnas and his associate Fruman had been arrested for funneling illegal foreign campaign contributions into he coffers of American politicians this past October, Giuliani had come to their defense, telling Washington Post reporter Josh Dawsey, “I certainly am not going to disavow them. I have no reason to doubt them. Everything I’ve known about them says they would not commit a crime.” Today, however, Giuliani is saying of Parnes, “Believe him at your peril.”

            Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged Igor Fruman, Lev Parnas | Leave a comment

            Nunes’s memory seems to be improving now that Parnes has gone public

            Politico reported earlier today that Lev Parnas, in addition to handing over all of the material we discussed yesterday, also gave investigators voicemails he’d saved from Trump associates. And, coincidentally, shortly thereafter, Devin Nunes went on television to announce that, contrary to what he’d said earlier, he now remembers that he did in fact have a few conversations with Parnas, the Trump administration’s bag man in Ukraine. It’s really amazing how the human memory works, isn’t it?

            update: Well, Parnes just told Rachel Maddow that he not only “met with Nunes several times,” but that the Congressman was in evolved in “getting all this stuff on Biden.”

            Posted in Uncategorized | 1 Comment

            Parnas files appear to show that people working on behalf of the President were monitoring the movements of U.S. Ambassador to Ukraine Marie Yovanovitch and her security detail

            On the eve of handing the articles of impeachment against Donald Trump off to the Republican-controlled Senate, House Democrats played the last card they had left in their hand, going public with a cache of documents given to federal investigators by Giuliani associate Lev Parnas, who, as you may recall, was arrested on charges of channelling millions of dollars in illegal foreign campaign donations to U.S. politicians while trying to flee the country this past October. I’m just beginning to make my way through the documents, but there are two things that I wanted to at least mention before getting back to my reading.

            First, we have a note in Parnas’s handwriting, written on stationary from the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Vienna, which states clearly the objective of Giuliani’s work on the President’s behalf in Ukraine. “Get Zelensky to announce that the Biden case will be investigated,” it says. This, of course, isn’t exactly a new revelation. We knew from Trump-appointed Ambassador to the European Union, Gordon Sondland, that the President’s objective was never, as we’d been told, to see to it that corruption was rooted out in Ukraine, but to have Zelensky go on CNN to announce an investigation into his primary political opponent in the 2020 presidential campaign, Joe Biden. This is important, though, as it puts Parnas at the heart of the plot, and reminds us once again why it’s so imperative that we have a real, substantive trial in the U.S. Senate, in which actual witness testimony is heard. And, as Lawfare’s Susan Hennessey just said on Twitter, this new evidence from Parnas raises the stakes for Republicans from moderate states who would like nothing better than just to vote with McConnell to end this quickly for the President, without doing what the Constitution demands of them. “Moderate Republicans in the Senate who were hoping to walk away from this with a furrowed brow and a quiet ‘no’ vote have got to be feeling queasy tonight,” she said.

            Second, and even more alarming, the information on the cell phone which Parnas handed over to investigators would seem to indicate that, in March 2019, he was working with Republican congressional candidate Robert F. Hyde to surveil U.S. Ambassador to Ukraine Marie Yovanovitch and note the activities of her security detail. “Can’t believe Trump hasn’t fired this bitch,” Hyde texts to Parnas, before stating that there are people in Kiev “willing to help” for a price. While he doesn’t get into any detail as to what these people might do for this money, it’s chilling as fuck, especially as we know that Yovanovitch was told, when she was pulled out of Ukraine, that there were concerns about her “security.” When you know that, and you read Hyde talking about how she’s “under heavy protection outside of Kiev,” and how you can get people to “do anything in the Ukraine with money,” it makes you wonder just how far these men were willing to go to get “this bitch” out of the way. [As you’ll recall, Yovanovitch had a reputation for being an anti-corruption crusader in Ukraine.] As former federal prosecutor Mimi Rocah just said, “As a former mafia prosecutor, this sure sounds like a mob hit was being planned on a public servant in a foreign country by associates of the President of the United Status.” And let’s also remember that, as all of this was happening, Donald Trump was on the phone with Zelensky, ominously talking about how Yovanovitch was “going to go through some things.”

            When you’re done here, if you still want more, there’s a new article over at the Washington Post site titled “Ukraine prosecutor offered information related to Biden in exchange for ambassador’s ouster, newly released materials show.” Check it out, and, if you like it, send a link to your favorite Republican member of the Senate.

            Posted in Politics, Uncategorized | Tagged assassination, bitch", call to action, corruption, Donald Trump, Fraud Guarantee, Gordon Sondland, Hunter Biden, impeachment, Joe Biden, Kiev, Lev Parnas, mafia, Marie Yovanovitch, Mimi Rocah, mob hit, Robert F. Hyde, Rudy Giuliani, stalking, surveilance, Susan Hennessey, Ukraine, Viena, Volodymyr Oleksandrovych Zelensky | 62 Comments

            It looks as though my great, great, great, great, great grandfather, Clark Wise, may have been with Washington at Valley Forge

            While I’m tempted to make the case that my family’s Wise line goes all the way back to Colonel John Wise (1617-1695), who is thought to have arrived in the Virginia Colony from England in 1635, I think it’s probably more likely that the first Wise in my family to step foot in America was Richard Wise (1654-1732), who settled in St. Mary’s County, Maryland. Actually, I’m almost certain of it, as the line is relatively easy to trace back to him, given that my ancestors stayed put in St. Mary’s County, around the town of Leonardtown, for four generations. It wasn’t until my great, great, great, great, great grandfather, Clark Wise, left Maryland for Culpeper, Virginia, that things get a little more difficult to follow. And that’s how I’ve been spending my nights of late, attempting to trace things backward and forward from Clark Wise, who is yet another of my ancestors to have apparently fought in the Revolutionary War, and trying to figure out how it was that he came to relocate 80-some miles to the west of Leonardtown, to Culpeper. I’d originally thought it might have something to do with his having fought in the Revolutionary War. I’d thought, perhaps, he might have received a land bounty in return for his three years of service in the 11th Virginia Regiment. Now, though, I’m thinking that he relocated to Culpeper prior to the war.

            As you may recall, it was a land bounty earned by my ancestor David Avery after his service in the War of 1812 that brought another line of my family west to Schuyler, Illinois in 1817, so I’d thought that something similar may have happened here. There were, after all, bounty land warrants given out after the Revolutionary War. There are a few things, however, that make me think that’s not the case here. First, Culpeper, which was founded in 1749, was already pretty well established by the time the Revolutionary War started, so it’s doubtful that land there would be given to veterans of the war. [note: A 17 year old George Washington was commissioned to survey and plot both the Town and County of Culpeper in 1749.] And most of the post-Revolutionary War land bounties that I’ve read about were in Ohio and Kentucky, which were just then opening up to settlement by non-native Americans. Second, I haven’t been able to find hard evidence of it, but some of Clark’s descendants seem to think that his first child, Margret, was born in Culpeper prior to the war. And, if that’s the case, obviously he would havealready been in Culpeper before joining the revolution. And, third, and most importantly, we know from his Revolutionary War pay stubs that he fought in the 11th Virginia Regiment company of Captain Gabriel Long, who also haled from Culpeper, and, for what it’s worth, had a reputation as someone who was more than willing to kill British officers. So I think it’s probably the case that Clark Wise was in Culpeper prior to the Revolutionary War, and that’s where he decided to join Long’s company. [I’ve seen it noted that Long was also known to have “scalped” the English that he killed.]

            And, yes, for what it’s worth, I think I’ve got pretty good evidence that particular relative of mine – Clark Wise – served in the Revolutionary War. I’ll get into it more in a minute, but, here, before too many of you lose interest, are a few of those Continental Army pay stubs that I just mentioned. As you can see, he served in the Virginia 11th Regiment, known as “Morgan’s Rifles,” under the command of Colonel Daniel Morgan. His company, within the regiment, as I mentioned earlier, was commanded by the storied marksman Captain Gabriel Long. [The Virginia 11th, along with the 3rd Virginia, the 7th Virginia, and the 15th Virginia, comprised the brigade of Brigadier General William Woodford. The Woodford Brigade, in turn, was one of three, along with the Scott’s Brigade and the North Carolina Brigade, under Major General Marquis de Lafayette, in what was known as Lafayette’s Division. Lafayette, by the way, when he was invited back to the United States by President James Monroe to tour the country in celebration of the 50th anniversary of the revolution, as the only living general of that war, visited Gabriel Long and the living members of the Virginia 11th on August 16, 1825. Clark Wise, however, didn’t make it that long. He had died some eight years earlier, in 1817.]

            [A higher resolution image of the above can be found here.]

            I’ll get back to the Revolutionary War in a minute, but first I’m going to trace the familial line back to Clark Wise… As you’ll recall, when we left off, I’d traced my ancestry back to Jefferson Davis Wise (1861–1937), the father of my great grandmother, Minnie Wise Florian. So, let’s pick things up there.

            We know from the 1937 death certificate of Jefferson Davis Wise that he was born in Owen County, Kentucky to John Wise and Matilda Gill Wise. This is not only corroborated by his 1926 marriage certificate to his third wife, but by the 1870 census that shows a 9 year old “Jeff D Wise” living in Monterey, Kentucky, with his parents, John and Matilda Wise. [My great grandmother was the fourth of four children had by Jefferson Davis Wise and his first wife, Lavina Tipton (1850-1897), a fact that I just had confirmed again thanks to a family tree that was coincidentally mailed to my great grandmother by a relative the day after she passed away in 1981. While she, obviously, never received it, my aunt had the foresight to save the letter, and just emailed me a a copy.]

            OK, so this is the only known photo of Jefferson Davis Wise, my great, great grandfather. That’s my grandmother’s handwriting at the bottom, and the people in the photo, from left to right, are Jefferson Davis Wise, Minnie Wise Florian (his daughter and my great grandmother), and Wythe Thomas Wise (another of the four children had by Lavina Tipton Wise and Jefferson Davis Wise).

            So, the next person in the Wise line, as we work our way backward through time, would be John Anderson Wise (1823-1893), the father of my great, great grandfather, Jefferson Davis Wise. It looks as though John Anderson Wise was born in Virginia on March 8, 1823, and moved to Kentucky at a relatively young age with his family. The first sign I can find of him in Kentucky, however, is on the 1850 census for Franklin, Kentucky, which encompasses Frankfort, and the surrounding countryside, right up to White Sulpher, Stamping Ground, and other places I remember talking with my great grandparents about. This census document is a bit confusing, as it doesn’t list Jefferson Davis Wise, who would have been 9 or 10 at the time, as having been living with them, but we know from his death certificate, which I linked to above, that John Wise and Matilda Gill Wise were his parents, and that he was born in Kentucky. And, this, I should add, is also the John Anderson Wise who we believe fought on the side of the Union during the Civil War, in the 14th Regiment of the Kentucky Cavalry, but I’ll come back to that at a later date. For now, I just want to demonstrate that Jefferson “Jeff” Davis Wise was the son of John Anderson Wise and Matilda Gill Wise, and, thankfully, someone in the Gill family posted an old family tree to a genealogy site which does that. Here’s the detail about their 11 children.

            So, between this family tree, and the fact that “Jeff” Wise’s parents are listed as John and Matilda Wise on his death certificate, I feel pretty confident about that connection, especially seeing as how we have evidence of them all living in close proximity to one another in this area of Kentucky. The next step back, however, takes us to Virginia, which is a little more complicated.

            I believe the father of John Anderson Wise was William D. Wise (1783-1872), who appears to have been born in Culpeper, Virginia on October 14, 1783. And I believe his mother was Lucinda Etherton Wise (1794-1829), who was also born in Culpeper. Among the reasons I feel comfortable making this claim is the fact that I’ve found a document detailing how John A. Wise and Matilda Gill were just one set of two Wise-Gill matches in their generation, with the other being Mary Wise and John Gill. Here’s the document, which shows William and Lucinda as the parents of both John and Mary.

            In addition, we have the will of William Wise, which lists John among his sons.

            As for when the Wise family came to Kentucky from Virginia, it must have been prior to August 11, 1835, when we see evidence that William Wise married his second wife, Julia Long, in Franklin County, Kentucky. John Anderson Wise would have been about 12 at the time of the wedding. And, for what it’s worth, I also have evidence of William Wise’s 1815 marriage to Lucinda Etherton, my great, great, great, great grandmother, who passed in 1829, in Culpeper… So it’s looking as though the family migrated from Culpeper to Kentucky between 1829 and 1835.

            So, if all of that holds up, it brings us to Clark Wise, the Revolutionary War veteran I mentioned at the beginning of this post, the man who I believe to be the father of William Wise, and my great, great, great, great, great grandfather. As you can see in this old Wise family tree, he’s listed as the father of the William Wise who married Lucy (Lucinda) Etherton. [I have no idea who authored this family tree, but, as it agrees with my research, I think it’s likely correct.]

            OK, so I’m pretty sure that I’m a descendant of Clark Wise, who, as noted above, fought in the Revolutionary War, as part of the Virginia 11th. I’d like to take some pride in that, but, as I fear that he may also have been a slaveholder, I’m going to hold off a bit on celebrating the familial connection. But, as for his three years of service during the Revolutionary War, I imagine he was right in the thick of it. If you look at those pay stubs that I posted above, they show his service having taken place during the time that Washington was keeping his winter quarters at Valley Forge, which stretched from December 19, 1777 to June 19, 1778. And this is interesting because the Virginia 11th was stationed at Valley Forge during that period of time. Here’s a map that shows were Woodford’s Brigade would have been stationed.

            From what I’ve read, of the men who served in the Woodford Brigade at Valley Forge, 46 deserted, 113 died, and 380 were discharged. And, thankfully, Clark Wise was not one of those killed, as his son, my great, great, great, great grandfather, William Wise, was not born until 1783, well after the war. [When Morgan’s Brigade entered Valley Forge, only 81 of the 326 men assigned for duty were deemed to be “fit”. When they left Valley Forge, there were only 254 men then assigned for duty, and 152 of the were deemed fit. It’s also worth noting that, prior to their deployment to Valley Forge, the Virginia 11th also saw battle at the Siege of Boston, the Invasion of Canada, the Defense of Philadelphia, and in New York City, Trenton-Princeton, Northern New Jersey, and Philadelphia-Monmouth.]

            For those of you who don’t know about that winter at Valley Forge, it was, by all accounts, hell on earth. Governor Morris of the Continental Congress referred to the men at Valley Forge as “an army of skeletons… naked, starved, sick and discouraged.” And, based on several of the pay stubs I’ve seen, Clark Wise from Culpeper was one of those who was sick. Washington wrote at the time that 2,898 men under his command at Valley Forge were “unfit for duty because they are bare foot and otherwise naked.” Men were literally starving to death and dying of exposure, and the Continental Congress, it would seem, was not coming to their aid. As Washington wrote at the time, “The congress has little feeling for the naked and distressed soldiers. I feel superabundantly for them, and from my soul pity those miseries, which it is neither in my power to relieve or prevent.” Thankfully, my ancestor survived the ordeal, and that’s why I’m here today. Many others weren’t so lucky.

            Here’s his name on page 269 of the book Records of the Revolutionary War by J. T. McAllister.


            [note: Clark Wise would have been 24 years old on June 1, 1777.]

            One more thing. While there’s not a lot written about Clark Wise, and his service during the war, I think it’s safe to say that, as one of just about 40 men in Gabriel Long’s company, he was likely involved in most everything that Long was involved in. So, with that in mind, here, from Wikipedia, is a little about Long’s service during the Revolutionary War.

            …By the time Virginia began raising troops for service in the Continental Army, Long already had a rather distinguished service record and was renowned as one of the best riflemen in Virginia, so it was natural that when Daniel Morgan was recruiting his rifle battalion he chose Long as his senior captain. As later remarked by his men, Long was his “favourite captain and good friend”. Long also began recruiting his own men. He would reportedly draw a target, usually in the shape of a human nose, in the middle of a board and set it up at several hundred yards; those who shot the closest to the nose would be chosen for service in his unit. Long himself was known to have shot apples off of men’s heads at a considerable range, a practice which was said to have “wasted many apples”. He was also known to be accurate up to 300 yards with a target the size of an orange. His sons, Reuben and Solomon, also served in the Revolutionary War. Reuben served alongside his father in Daniel Morgan’s unit, and Solomon served in Lieutenant Colonel Francis Marion’s South Carolina Regiment.

            Long traveled with Morgan to join George Washington’s army in its siege of Boston and was heavily involved in operations in the Boston area. Long’s fame and the fame of Morgan’s Rifles began to grow by early 1776. He became good friends with Washington and the Marquis de Lafayette, and was often sent out on detached services as an independent commander. He became famous for his willingness to kill officers and his hatred of Tories as well as his fondness of scalping the officers he killed. Long went on to serve with distinction as the vanguard of the army and to protect its encampments.

            During the Battle of Trenton, Long was the first across the Delaware River and his company led the assault. It is believed that he may have been the mysterious marksman who killed Colonel Johann Rall. At the Battle of Princeton in January 1777, Long helped unite Sullivan’s and Washington’s columns by holding back the British and thus greatly contributed to the American victory.

            Long was Captain of one of eight elite Companies of detached Provisional Riflemen commanded by Colonel Daniel Morgan and sent by George Washington in August of 1777 to defend Albany from British army under General John Burgoyne, who surrendered to the American forces at the end of the Battles of Saratoga in October 1777. When Washington settled into camp at Valley Forge, Long led his men as a detached company under his independent command who scouted and skirmished all around the camp and prevented the British from taking Washington’s army in such a vulnerable state. After the encampment at Valley Forge, he helped defend Philadelphia from an expected attack, and through his and others’ efforts it was repulsed.

            At Millstone, New Jersey, while leading a detachment, he came across a column of British soldiers under Lord Cornwallis whose intentions were to draw Washington’s army out of its fortified position to an open area for a general engagement. Long, realizing this, raised the alarm and stood his ground, holding back the enemy while awaiting reinforcements which eventually completely drove out the British. Long once again saved Washington’s army and would continue to do so in the future.

            So, yeah, it looks like I’m the direct descendant of a Revolutionary War sniper.

            Posted in History, Mark's Life, Uncategorized | Tagged 11th Virginia Regiment, 14th Kentucky Volunteer Cavalry Regiment, 14th Regiment of the Kentucky Cavalry, 1777, 1817, 1870, bounty lands, census, Civil War, Clark Wise, Clarke Wise, Colonel John Wise, Continental Army, Culpeper, Culpeper Minutemen, Daniel Morgan, David Avery, Defense of Philadelphia, exposure, Franklin County, Gabriel Long, genealogy, George Washington, Illinois, Invasion of Canada, James Monroe, Jefferson Davis Wise, John Anderson Wise, Julia Long, Kentucky, Lafayette’s Division, land bounty, Lavina Tipton, Leonardtown, Lord Cornwallis, Louvina J. Tipton, Lucinda Etherton Wise, Mark's ancestors, Marquis de Lafayette, Maryland, Matilda Gill, Matilda Gill Wise, Minnie Florence Wise, Minnie Wise Florian, Monterey, Morgan’s Rifles, muster, Ohio, Owen County, pay stub, Revolutionary War, Richard Wise, Schuyler, Siege of Boston, slavery, Sniper, St. Mary's County, Stamping Ground, starving, surveying, Valley Forge, Virginia, Virginia colony, War of 1812, White Sulpher, William D. Wise, William Woodford, Wise, Woodford Brigade, Woodford’s Brigade, Wythe Thomas Wise | 15 Comments

            Well, it looks like Trump lied when he said that Soleimani was targeting four U.S. embassies

            A few days ago, in an interview with Fox News’s Laura Ingraham, President Donald Trump told the American people that we had no choice but to act quickly and assassinate Iranian General Qasem Soleimani as he was planning not just to “blow up” our embassy in Bagdad, but three others as well. Here’s an excerpt from the Washington Post.

            …Trump expanded on comments from a day earlier, when he initially told reporters that Soleimani’s forces “were looking to blow up our embassy” in Baghdad. He later said at a rally in Toledo that “Soleimani was actively planning new attacks, and he was looking very seriously at our embassies, and not just the embassy in Baghdad.”

            “Did [Soleimani] have large-scale attacks planned for other embassies?” Ingraham asked. “And if those were planned, why can’t we reveal that to the American people? Wouldn’t that help your case?”

            “I can reveal that I believe it probably would’ve been four embassies,” Trump said…

            Well, guess what? Today, when asked to identify the four U.S. embassies under imminent threat of attack, U.S. Secretary of Defense Mark Esper said that he “didn’t see” evidence of any such plans. Here he is being interviewed by Jake Tapper this morning, trying to defend Donald Trump by saying that Soleimani “could have been targeting” U.S. embassies.

            Here, for those of you unwilling to watch the painful exchange above, in which Esper attempts to defend Trump’s lie, is a brief excerpt from the transcript.

            Tapper: Why is Trump telling Fox that Iran was going to attack four embassies when Congress says they haven’t seen evidence of this?

            Esper: Trump never said there was specific intelligence.

            Tapper: He said he believed it.

            Esper: I believe it too.

            So, if we’re to believe Esper, U.S. forces assassinated the second most powerful official in the Iranian government because Donald Trump personally “believed” that Soleimani was planning to blow up four embassies, when there was no specific evidence of any such thing actually happening. [I guess, once again, we’re being asked to value Donald Trump’s “emotional truth” over actual truth.]

            Here’s Congressman Adam Schiff, the head of the House Intelligence Committee, and a member of the so-called Gang of Eight, saying that he’s yet to see evidence of an “imminent threat” being posed by Soleimani that would justify such an attack.

            And, just to recap, this is important because, without evidence of an imminent attack which was disrupted by Soleimani’s assassination, our nation is guilty of having committed an illegal act. As Agnes Callamard, the United Nations official in charge of assessing the legality of targeted killings under international law, said following of the assassination of Soleimani, “The test for so-called anticipatory self-defence is very narrow: it must be a necessity that is ‘instant, overwhelming, and leaving no choice of means, and no moment of deliberation’”. And, with every day that passes — and it’s now been nine — it’s looking less likely that Soleimani’s killing was legal under international law.

            As for why Donald Trump would make a move like this against Soleimani when, in addition to being illegal, so many thought it would only serve to escalate tensions in the Middle East, here’s a possible clue from the Wall Street Journal.

            Granted, just because Trump told people that he gave the order to kill Soleimani because Republican senators told him to, it doesn’t make it true, but it warrants investigating. And, thankfully, Americans for Oversight have already FOIA’d “senior State Department and DOD officials’ communications with Senators Lindsey Graham, Tom Cotton, and Marco Rubio during the weeks immediately before the strike”. So, with any luck, we’ll find out soon what kind of pressure Donald Trump might have been under from the Iran hawks in the Republican Party… This is a long way from being over.

            update Speaking of uncomfortable videos of administration officials lying for Donald Trump, here’s National Security Advisor Robert C. O’Brien telling Chuck Todd that we need to take him at his word when he tells us that there was “exquisite intelligence” about an imminent attack, even though he’s not at liberty to share it, even with members of the House Intelligence Committee… I’m not the biggest Chuck Todd fan, but I loved how, at the end of the clip, he asks O’Brien why, if there was an imminent attack against U.S. embassies in the offing, no embassy personnel were alerted. O’Brien’s response? “It was a very fast moving situation.” If only Chuck Todd had followed up with, “Well, if that’s the case, how is that Donald Trump was talking about the operation to Mar-a-Lago members several days before it happened?”

            Posted in Politics, Uncategorized | Tagged Adam Schiff, Agnes Callamard, Americans for Oversight, assassination, Bagdad, Donald Trump, emotional truth, FOIA, House Intelligence Committee, imminent threat, international law, Iran, Lindsey Graham, Marco Rubio, mark Esper, National Security Advisor, Qasem Soleimani, Robert C. O'Brien, Secretary of Defense, targeted killings, Tom Cotton | 42 Comments

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